It is difficult to speak of winemaking. The saying goes in France there are as many wines as vineyards. Every winemaker brings his one touch before, during, and after the wine making process.
Each choice in the successive steps of the elaboration of wine has repercussions on the taste and the quality of the wine :
- The choice of the terroir
- The climate (and the date of harvest)
- The choice of the grape-variety, it is determinant
- The type of container in which the fermentation will take place
- The temperature at which the juice of grape is maintained during the fermentation
- The fermentation period
- The type of container in which the maturation will take place
Nobody can pretend there is only one unique method of making wine. That is the beauty of wine as winemakers are also responsible for the incredible diversity of wines we can choose from. Needless to say that winemaking requires "savoir-faire" and experience. A winemaker is not only an artisan but also an artist.
11 steps to make wine:
- plantation (or grafting) of a vine stock
- growing of the grape-bunch
- harvesting the grapes
- de-stemming* and crushing the grapes (* only for red wine)
- alcoholic fermentation of the liquid
- maceration*(* only for red wine)
- raking the wine
- malolactic fermentation
- maturation of the wine
- bottling the wine
- tasting the wine
- Must: it is the grape-juice produced by crushing.
- Alcoholic fermentation : the juice becomes wine under the natural action of yeast which changes sugar in alcohol.
- Maceration : the pomace (skin, pips and stems) impregnate the must giving body and color.
- Raking : pomace and must are separated. The must becomes "vin de goutte", the pomace becomes "vin de presse".
- Malolactic fermentation : under the action of natural bacteria, the harsh malic acid changes itself in lactic acid supple and stable.
- Maturation : the wine is clarified and put in casks/barrels to stabilize and perfects itself.